THE BIGGEST PROBLEM IN SCIENCE

April 07, 2019

Under the term "science" we understand knowledge which can be proven to be correct through tests, observations and predictions about the future. Following this logic then, the science from which all other types of knowledge emerge, must be the science associated with the Creation of our Universe, for the Universe is everything that man can ever experience and know. This science we now call "physics" and following the logic stated above, it would be true to say that the problems associated with physics are the biggest scientific problems, for they are associated with the science  from which all other sciences emerge.

SPACE-TIME

It was in the 20th century Albert Einstein that totally overturned the human understanding about the Universe. One of the greatest contributions of this genius was the establishment of the theory that space, in which our Universe exist, is also time itself. At first glance this idea makes no sense, it actually sounds ridiculous, even though, as we will now understand, it is true. The very space in which all galaxies, with their stars and planets exist, can be viewed as a stretched fabric on top of which everything in the Universe exist. When we lay down an object on top of that fabric, it becomes bent (somewhat concaved). Similarly, the very space is being bent when certain physical objects (planets or stars for example) are placed on top of it. The heavier the object is, the harder space is being bended. This bending of space we call "gravity", which we say pulls us down. That which connected time and space is the discovery that the harder the space is bended the slower the time flows. The planet Jupiter for example, has almost 318 times the mass of the Earth, therefore it bends space 318 times harder, which means time flows slower there. If a person goes on to live on Jupiter for an year, he and his body will experience time no different than when living here on Earth, it's not like everything he sees around him will move in slow motion, nor he will hear his speech stretched to being slow.


When he comes back to Earth one year later however, more than 1 year will have passed here, not just because Jupiter takes more time to orbit around the sun, but also because of gravity itself. If we consider the person to have had a watch counting the hours passed for that 1 year on Jupiter, when he comes on Earth, the clocks here will show a significant amout more hours to have had passed, even though both the clocks here on Earth and there on Jupiter had counted the hours passing by with the same speed. It may sound a bit crazy, but that is a fact. Therefore the bending of space means also the bending of time, from this fact we conclude that space and time are the same thing, thus Einstein termed it "space-time". 

THE BIG BANG

From many calculations, observations, experimens and tests we know for sure that more than 13 billions of years ago the Universe was a lot smaller. It was actually billions of times smaller than a grain of sand. Then this small Universe suddenly expanded - this we refer to as "The Big Bang Theory". This theory represents the idea that the very space-time was infinitely small in size, and since everything known to us exist within this space-time of ours, it means that in the earliest stage of our Universe nothing could have existed, because of the very fact that nor time nor space had existed. One of the basic laws of quantum physics (the study of subatomic particles which make up all objects around us) states that energy cannot be created nor destroyed. Meaning, we can break, burn, melt, etc. an object, but the total sum of the energy, which makes it up will never be lost, it will only change form. The whole Universe as we know it today, with all of its galaxies, has a certain amout of energy which makes it up, and because energy cannot be created nor destroyed, that means when the space-time itself was billions of times smaller than a grain of sand all the energy which makes up the galaxies was compressed within that infinitely small size.


THE BIGGEST PROBLEM IN SCIENCE

The biggest problem is that the theory of Einstein predicts the existence of a "point of singularity". Such a point is the base of black holes. When a certain object becomes massive enough it can bend space-time to an infinite amout so that whatever falls into its gravity cannot come back out, not even light. All mathematics break down and make no sense when they reach this point of singularity, the results give something (zero) that has no beginning nor end, it has infinite density and infinite small size. Therefore the point of singularity represents the bending of space-time to the point in which both space and time do not exist at all. According to the Big Bang Theory, the Universe began from such a point of singularity, and then the expansion began. The problem is that from the perspective of quantum physics a point of singularity cannot exist, because nothing can be infinitely small or infinitely dense, therefore the cause of the Big Bang and the creation of the Universe cannot be established through any scientific means. We can only come up with theories explaining what existed before the Big Bang and what caused it, but they cannot be tested with our modern technology and understanding. It seems like mankind had reached a wall in knowing what is the very nature of our Universe and what caused the Big Bang itself, and perhaps science will never be able to jump over that wall, because it is not a matter of technological development, but of basic Universal laws which are impossible to be violated.

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